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13th Amendment

13th Amendment to the US constitution abolished slavery and involuntary servitude in the country. It was passed in 1865, effectively ending the 4 year long Civil War. The main architect of the amendment was Lincoln.
Versus History #80ADD TO POLYBOOK
Slavery, Abolished, Lincoln, Civil, War, Emancipation, North, South, Breakthrough, History
Washington D.C., DC, USA

1968 Democratic Convention

Police clashes, National Guard was called. Humphrey won (RFK’s vice-president). Happened in a year of violence and at a time when, despite control of the house, senate & Wht House, Democratic Party was divided.
American History TellersADD TO POLYBOOK
Political-parties, Democratic-Convention, 1968, Humphrey, Riots, Protest, Event, Culture, History, Politics
Chicago, Illinois, EUA

8 1/2

A 1963 Italian film directed by Federico Fellini. Stars Marcello Mastroianni and Claudia Cardinale. Recounts the story of a fictional director suffering from a lack of creativity. Critically and popularly acclaimed.
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Italian, 1960s, Fellini, Surrealist, Famous, Dada, Other, Arts, Culture, Society
Italy

Abraham Lincoln

He was an American politician who served as the 16th president of the US from 1861-1865. He led the nation through the Civil War. He succeeded in preserving the Union and abolishing slavery by passage of 13 amendment.
Versus History #80ADD TO POLYBOOK
President, 16th, USA, Slavery, North, South, Civil, War, Freedom, Person, History, Politics
Kentucky, USA

Abul Kalam Azad

Indian scholar, Islamic theologian, independence activist, and a senior leader of the INC during the Indian independence movement. Following India's independence, he became the First Minister of Education.
This Day in History ClassADD TO POLYBOOK
India, Movement, Muslim, Independence, British, Raj, Education, Person, History, Politics
India

Achaemenid Persian Empire

Founded by Cyrus the Great. Spanned from Balkans to Indus Valley. Bureaucratic system with roads postal service and one dominant language. Largest empire until conquered by Alexandre the Great.
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Ancient-civilizations, Persia, Cyrus, UNESCO, Babylon, Aramaic, Empire, Group, Place, Culture, History, Politics, Society
Shiraz, Irã

Acquired Savant Syndrome

When new abilities, typically in music, art or mathematics, appear unexpectedly in ordinary persons after a head injury, stroke or other central nervous system (CNS) incident. See Alonzo Clemens 1984.
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Theory, Brain, Condition, Memory,
Boulder, CO, United States

Agricultural Revolution

Also Neolithic Revolution. Thought to have occurred in Mesopotamia around 10,000 BC when humans first decided to change lifestyle from hunter-gathering to settling and farming.
Great Leap Years | S1 E1ADD TO POLYBOOK
Evolution, Technology, Change, Human, Civilisation, Event, Breakthrough, History, Society
Iraq

Akbar

Akbar popularly known as Akbar the Great, was the third Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1556 to 1605. Akbar succeeded his father, Humayun, and expanded and consolidated the Mughal domains in India.
Dan Snow's History HitADD TO POLYBOOK
Mughal, India, Pakistan, Islam, Emperor, Youngest, Ruler, Person, Arts, History, Politics
Umarkot, Pakistan

Albert Einstein

Considered the father of modern physics. His research in relativity lead to the discovery that mass and energy are interchangeable (E=mc^2). He won the Nobel Prize for his research in photoelectronic effect.
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Physics, Science, Relativity, Inventors, Nobel-Prize, Person, History, Science, Maths, Technology
Ulm, Alemanha

Alexander the Great

Macedonian king who, through warfare, rose quikly to power throughout Asia Minor & Central. He began to claim divinity as the son of Zeus. In 323 he died from illness and the empire crumbled soon thereafter.
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Conqueror, Western-History, Legends, Infamous, Rulers, Greek-History, Person, History, Politics, Society
Macedónia do Norte

Alexander von Humboldt

Prussian polymath, geographer, naturalist, explorer, and proponent of Romantic philosophy and science. His work on botanical geography laid the foundation for the field of biogeography. Introduced Guano to the west.
Unexplained | S05 Ep01ADD TO POLYBOOK
Agriculture, Fertiliser, Industrial, Person, Breakthrough, Philosophy, Culture, Science, Technology, Society
Berlin, Germany

Alexandra Feodorovna (Alix of Hesse)

The favourite grandchild of Queen Victoria, Alix became the last Tzarina of Russia when she married Nicholas. She had five children but was most concerned with her sickly. She was assassinated along with her children.
You're Wrong AboutADD TO POLYBOOK
Royalty, Russia, Tzarina, Revolution, Assasination, Person, History
Darmstadt, Germany

Alexei Leonov

Leonov is the first person to exit a spacecraft and complete a spacewalk. During his return to Earth, the capsule crash landed in the Ural Mountains but he survived. He also completed the first US/USSR space rendezvous.
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Russia, USSR, Spacewalk, Space, Cosmonaught, Person, Event, History, Trivia, Politics
Russia

Alexei Nikolaevich

The last heir apparent to the Russian throne. A much loved son, he suffered from haemophilia which meant he was very protected. He was treated by mystic Girgori Rasputin. He was killed along with his family.
You're Wrong AboutADD TO POLYBOOK
Russia, Royalty, Haemophilia, Sickness, Assasination, Person, History
Peterhof, Saint Petersburg, Russia

American Civil War

It was a civil war in the US from 1861 to 1865, fought between Northern states and southern states—that had seceded from the Union. It began primarily due to Slavery, an institution that was abolished by 13th amendment.
Versus History #80ADD TO POLYBOOK
Civil, War, America, Slavery, South, North, Lincoln, Event, History
USA

American Independent Party

Ultra conservative values - against taxation or compromise with the enemy. Appealed to blue-collar workers who were upset at lawlessness and loose morals of the 60’s. Started in California.
American History TellersADD TO POLYBOOK
George-Wallace, Political-parties, Far-right, Conservatism, 1968, Group, History, Politics, Society
Vacaville, CA, EUA

Amy Winehouse

An English singer and songwriter. She was known for her deep, expressive vocals and her eclectic mix of musical genres, including soul, R&B, and jazz. Tragically died of alcohol poisoning in London at age 27.
SpotifyADD TO POLYBOOK
Music, Rock, Pop, 27Club, Legend, Iconic, R&B, London, Person, Arts, Culture, Society
Camden Town, London, UK

Ana Mercedes Hoyos

Colombian painter and sculptor. Started with pop art and moved to abstract and atmospheric. Bright colors, sensual and representative of Columbia’s national art.
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Columbia, Artist, Sculptor, Pop-art, Abstract-art, Frieze, Bogota, Person, Arts, Culture
Bogotá, DC, Colômbia

Anastasia (1997 film)

An animated musical film that fictionalises the rumour that the youngest daughter of the last Tzar of Russia did not die but was alive in Russia. Although not a Disney movie, it was created by an ex-Disney animator.
You're Wrong AboutADD TO POLYBOOK
Anastasia, Movie, Film, 1997, Animation, Artefact, Culture
United States

Ancient Diving Bells

The earliest deep sea diving devices were structures inverted to trap air before submersion. Aristotle tells us Alexander the Great made a “very fine barrel entirely of white glass” to explore the undersea world.
Working Over Time E35ADD TO POLYBOOK
Diving, Ocean, Exploration, Alexander, Aristotle, Bathysphere, Archaeology, Alexandria, Mediterranean, Person, Artefact, Activity, Invention, History, Technology, Travel, Science
Alexandria, Egypt

Angel Falls

Named after the American James Angel who ‘discovered’ the falls while looking for precious ore. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In 2009 former president Chavez pushed for the renaming of the site as Kerepakupai Merú.
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UNESCO, Waterfalls, Venezuela, Hikes, Canaima, National-Parks, Place, Travel, Geography, Culture
Estado de Bolívar, Venezuela

Anwar Sadat

One of the Free Officers who overthrew the king in 1952. 3rd president of Egypt. Lead Yom Kippur War, later signed peace treaty w/ Israel (1978) and viewed as a traitor. Assassinated by fundamentalists.
ConflictedADD TO POLYBOOK
Egypt, Arab-Isreal, FreeOfficers, 6-day-war, Egyption-president, Peace-treaty, Person, History, Politics, Society
Egypt

Apollo 11

The first successful space flight to the Moon completed by astronauts, Neil Armstrong, Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin and Michael Collins. This mission won the US the space race and no other country has yet to make the journey.
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NASA, Space, Apollo, USA, Moon, Event, History, Politics, Trivia
Kennedy Space Center

Arab Spring

Series of anti-government protests, uprisings, and armed rebellions that spread across much of the Arab world in the early 2010s. It began in response to oppressive regimes and a low standard of living.
It's a ContinentADD TO POLYBOOK
Revolution, Spring, Revolt, Freedom, Violence, Egypt, Libya, Event, History, Politics
Arabia

Athenian Democracy

A form of governance where all males over the age of 18 could participate directly in decisions regarding their governance. Met once a month to vote on issues. Considered the foundation of modern day democracy.
Ancient History EncylopeidaADD TO POLYBOOK
Democracy, Democratic, Politics, Greece, Athens, Men, Event, Place, Activity, History, Politics
Athens, Greece

Attack on Pearl Harbor

Attack on the US naval base at Pearl Harbor by Japanese forces during WWII. Led to the US entrance to the war. Around 2,335 Americans were killed. Roosevelt: ‘a date which will live in infamy’.
Hardcore History | Supernova in the East IIIADD TO POLYBOOK
Attack, Defence, Pearl, Harbor, US, Empire, Japan, Pacific, Event, History, Politics
Oahu

Attention economy

When information becomes abundant attention becomes a scarce resource (Simon). Attention is a filter for the human brain and advertising and media platforms capitalize on this with the modern human.
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Social-media, Social-theory, Modernization, New-economy, Theory, Culture, Society, Trivia, Other
Lisboa, Portugal

Aurangzeb

Sixth Mughal emperor who ruled over almost the entire Indian subcontinent for a period of 49 years. Widely considered to be the last effective ruler of the Mughal Empire. Established Sharia.
Dan Snow's History HitADD TO POLYBOOK
Empire, Emperor, Leader, Ruler, India, Subcontinent, Person, History
India

Aurora consurgens

Aurora Consurgens - Latin “Rising Dawn” - is a key work of alchemical writing in the European tradition. It is a 15thc illuminated manuscript depicting alchemical symbols in human, animal, and architectural form.
Working Over Time E29ADD TO POLYBOOK
Alchemy, Art, Medieval, Manuscript, Symbolism, Allegory, Magic, Christianity, Gender, Heraldry, Fact, Theory, Artefact, Arts, Culture, History, Philosophy, Science, Religion, Society
Europe

Aztecs

Triple alliance between the Mexica of Tenochtitlan, the Acolhua of Texcoco & Tepaneca of Tlacopan. Their demise by the Spanish was in large part due to local enemies they had gained through their brutal empire
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Mexica, Aztec, Mesoamerica, Plaza-Mayor, Moctezuma, Lake-Texcoco, Mexico, Group, Culture, History
Cidade do México, CDMX, México

Banksy

Although he is known as one of the world’s greatest street artist, only little is known about Banksy. When one of his artworks went up for auction in 2018, the canvas was destroyed through a shredder hidden in its frame.
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Artist, Street, Art, Graffiti, Person, Myth, Arts, Culture, Society
Bristol, England

Barley Mother

Notional name given to the theoretical first human who suggested that people should settle in one place and cultivate crops instead of wondering the land as hunter-gatherers.
Great Leap Years | S1 E1ADD TO POLYBOOK
Human, Agriculture, Civilisation, Myth, Society, Trivia, Culture
Syria

Battle of Cajamarca

Pizarro entered Peru w/ 168 men and arranged to meet the newly & controversially appointed king, Atahualpa, who arrived unarmed. A bible fell & cued a massacre of 7k Inca. Atahualpa was detained and illegally killed.
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Inca, Inka, Pizarro, Peru, conquistadors, Andean-history, Event, History, Society, Politics, Trivia
Cajamarca, Peru

Battle of Gettysburg

U.S. Civil War battle that marked a turning point in favor of the Union army. Many casualties. Inspired Lincoln’s famous Gettysburg Address which shifted the civil war into a battle over freedom and equality.
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Battle, Historic-Site, Civil-War, American-History, Slavery, Event, History, Politics
Gettysburg, PA, Estados Unidos

Battle of Midway

Major naval battle in the Pacific side of WWII—taking place six months after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Americans under Admiral Chester defeated the Japanese army. Led to heavy destruction of Japanese fleet.
Hardcore History | Supernova in the East IVADD TO POLYBOOK
WWII, Victory, Allies, Axis, American, June, 1942, Event, History, Politics
Midway Atoll

Battle of Santa Rosa

Costa Rican troops defeat filibuster William Walker at the battle of Santa Rosa. They owe their victory to Captain Le Lacheur who lent his ships to transport their army up the coast as the land route was too slow.
The Curiosity of a Child | S01 E25ADD TO POLYBOOK
Battle, Sea, Trade, Hero, War, Army, Event, History
Santa Rosa National Park, Guanacaste Province, Costa Rica

Battle of Tours

A battle that brought the Burgundian and Frankish forces against the forces of the Umayyad Caliphate. The Franks won the war. Termed by some scholars as a decisive battle that stopped Umayyad advance into Europe.
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War, Battle, Military, France, Franks, Duke, Event, History
Moussais-la-Bataille

Battle of Waterloo

The final defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte, this battle was fought against the French by the British and Prussian forces. Despite its name, the battle actually took place along the Mont Saint-Jean Ridge, not in Waterloo.
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Battle, French, British, Prussian, Napoleon, Event, Fact, History, Politics
Belgium

Battle of the Coral Sea

Battle in WWII between the naval forces of Japan and that of US and Australia. First battle in which aircraft carriers engaged eachother. Both sides claimed victory—although 1st time that Japanese advance was checked.
Hardcore History | Supernova in the East IVADD TO POLYBOOK
War, Battle, Coral, Sea, WWII, Japan, Imperialism, USA, Australia, Event, History, Politics
Coral Sea

Bay of Pigs Invasion

Failed operation on the southwestern coast of Cuba in 1961 by Cuban exiles who opposed Cuban Revolution. Financed and directed by the US government, the operation took place at the height of the Cold War.
Revisionist HistoryADD TO POLYBOOK
Cold, War, Battle, Invasion, Cuba, Fidel, Castro, Communism, Event, History, Politics
Cuba

Beau Nash

Beau Nash, born Richard Nash, was a celebrated dandy and leader of fashion. Became the Master of Ceremonies at the spa town of Bath and turned it’s fortunes around thanks, in part, to his massive balls (the dancing kind)
Loremen | E03 Ep35ADD TO POLYBOOK
, Person, Place, Culture, History, Arts, Society
Bath, England

Belka and Strelka

Two Soviet dogs, Belka and Strelka, are launched into orbit aboard the Sputnik 5 spacecraft. They return to Earth 25 hours later to become the first living creatures to return safely from space.
The Curiosity of a Child | S01 E19ADD TO POLYBOOK
Russia, Space, Race, Dog, Soviet, Sputnik, Organism, Science, Trivia
Russia

Belva Lockwood

Pro-abolitionist & equal rights for all. Lawyer & 1st (eligible) female candidate for US president-1884 & 1888. Paid her own way through high school. Went to Supreme Court for her right to be admitted to the bar(law).
The History ChicksADD TO POLYBOOK
Female-candidates, US-politics, Gender-equality, Abolitionist, women-in-politics, Person, Event, History, Politics, Society
Royalton, NY, EUA

Benito Mussolini

Mussolini was an Italian politician and journalist who founded and led the National Fascist Party. He was Prime Minister of Italy from the Fascist coup d'état in 1922 to his deposition in 1943. Inspired Hitler.
Versus History #77ADD TO POLYBOOK
Dictator, Authority, Power, Monarch, Ruler, World, War, Italy, Germany, Person, History, Politics
Predappio, Province of Forlì-Cesena, Italy

Bernice Robinson

Activist & educator. Forced to quit school after 8th grade due to Jim Crow Laws. Started citizenship school in South Carolina and began to teach citizens how to read so they could vote.
The Memory Palace | BeauticianADD TO POLYBOOK
Jim-crow, Citizenship, Right-to-vote, South-Carolina, Racial-justice, Equality, Person, History, Society, Culture, Politics
Johns Island

Black Death

Black Death was a global pandemic that mostly affected Europe, Asia and parts of Africa. It was caused by the bubonic plague. Resulted in the deaths of 75-200 million people worldwide. Deadliest pandemic in history.
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Pandemic, Outbreak, Epidemiology, Ancient, Plague, Bubonic, Event, History, Health, Society
Global

Bob Dylan

Bob Dylan is an American musician who is renowned for his revolutionary 1960s civil rights and anti-war songs. Hits include ‘Blowin’ in the Wind’ and ‘Like a Rolling Stone’. Recipient of the Nobel Prize for Literature.
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RockNRoll, Folk, Rights, Revolutionary, Sixties, Music, Person, Arts, Culture
Duluth, MN, United States

Bobby Kennedy

The seventh of nine children born to Rose and Joe, Bobby followed in the family tradition by entering politics. He served as Attorney General and as a US Senator before running for President. He was assassinated in 1968.
History Extra PodcastADD TO POLYBOOK
Kennedy, Assasination, President, Attorney, USA, Irish, Person, Event, History, Politics
Brookline, MA, USA

Book Of The Dead

A collection of magic spells and practical guidance for ancient Egyptians facing the trials of the underworld that stood between the deceased and everlasting life. Typically hieroglyphics or hieratic script on papyri.
Working Over Time E32ADD TO POLYBOOK
Egypt, Mummification, Afterlife, Archaeology, Papyrus, Magic, Hieroglyphics, Fact, Artefact, Other, History, Arts, Culture, Science, Society, Religion, Philosophy
Thebes, Al Qarna, Egypt

Booker T Washington

Prominent black educator and leader. One of the first generation of slaves freed during abolition and rose to position of power and influence. Founded Tuskegee Institute. Criticised as too accommodating to segregation.
One Mic: Black HistoryADD TO POLYBOOK
Author, Orator, Leader, Civil, Rights, Slavery, Abolition, Segregation, Person, History, Politics
Tuskegee Institute, AL, USA

Boscombe Whale

A whale carcass washed up on the beach in Bournemouth, a local doctor bought it and there his troubles began... He also adapted his the whale into a stage show that was bonkers.
Loremen | S3 Ep41ADD TO POLYBOOK
Fail, Stupid, Worst, Play, Place, Event, Artefact, Organism, Other, History, Geography, Other, Trivia
Boscombe Beach

Breathless (1960 film)

A French crime-drama film directed and written by Jean-Luc Godard. Stars Jean-Paul Belmondo and Jean Seberg. Recounts the story of a hardened criminal and his girlfriend. One of the most influential New Wave Films.
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Godard, French, NewWave, Sixties, Seberg, Betrayal, Other, Arts, Culture, Society
France

Brown v. Board of Education

A US Supreme Court decision in which the court by 9-0 ruled that racial segregation in schools was unconstitutional. Ended the notion of “separate but equal”. Remembered as a landmark case, although lacked practicality.
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Supreme, Court, Segregation, Racism, School, Education, 1950s, Civil, Rights, Breakthrough, Event, Other, Arts, Society, Politics, History
Washington, DC, United States

Cabbage Patch Kids

The hit Christmas toys in the mid 1980s, selling for 10 times their retail price, making billions of dollars and breaking every record. However poor management lead manufacturer, Coleco, to file for bankruptcy in 1988.
The Curiosity of a Child | S01 E24ADD TO POLYBOOK
Toys, Toy, Kid, Children, Records, Artefact, Invention, Trivia, Culture
West Hartford, CT, USA

Cambridge Analytica

Data company integral to the Brexit Referendum result and Trump election victory. Used Facebook user data to target hidden adverts at specific demographics to avoid electoral ad campaign rules.
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Election, Referendum, Data, Advertising, Social, Media, Group, Activity, Politics, News
Oxford Street

Cancel Culture

Pop culture practice of withdrawing support from public figures and organizations after unapproved behavior. An example of consumer power, performed social media, vigilante justice & social shaming
On the MediaADD TO POLYBOOK
Twitter, Social-media, Pop-culture, Consumer-culture, Theory, Culture, Society
Global

Cardinal Wolsey

Thomas Wolsey rose to prominence under King Henry VIII. He was the king’s almoner before becoming Bishop of Lincoln, then Archbishop, then Cardinal. He lost favour when he couldn’t secure an annulment for the King.
Stuff You Missed in History ClassADD TO POLYBOOK
Catholic, Pope, King, Cardinal, Influence, England, Person, Fact, History, Religion
England

Catcher In the Rye

An American literature classic , the protagonist, a teenage boy who winds up in an institute, speaks to the struggles of angst and rebellion inherent in adolescence. The book was highly controversial and often banned.
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Book, Classic-Literature, American-Literature, Youth, Banned-Books, Coming-of-Age, Controversy, Other, Artefact, Arts, Culture, Other
Estados Unidos

Catonsville 9

Anti-Vietnam War activists from Catholic left. Stormed the draft board, stole draft files & burned them w/ napalm. Lead to various other political actions. Associated with split of Democratic Party.
American History TellersADD TO POLYBOOK
Vietnam, Anti-war, War-draft, Uprisings, Protest, Activism, Event, Group, History, Culture, Politics, Society
Catonsville, MD, EUA

Chan Chan

Capital of the Chimor Kingdom. Similar to Cusco, the city was only for elites and artisans. Spanning 20km - comprised of luxurious ciudadelas. Rich in gold but looted by Spaniards. Extensive canal system. UNESCO site
A History of the IncaADD TO POLYBOOK
Chimu, Peru, Empires, UNESCO, sun-sun, Place, History, Culture, Travel, Society
Trujillo, Peru

Chanctonbury Ring

Chanctonbury Ring is a prehistoric hill fort atop Chanctonbury Hill on the South Downs. There is a whole bunch of reported spooky stuff and 2 Roman temples. 1 of which is linked to Mithraism
Loremen | E03 Ep33ADD TO POLYBOOK
Witches, Ghosts, Ufos, Place, Artefact, Myth, Other, Culture, Geography, History, Religion, Society, Other
Chanctonbury Ring

Chernobyl Disaster

The Chernobyl disaster was a nuclear accident that occurred at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant near the Soviet controlled city of Pripyat, Ukraine. Under 100 official deaths. Experts estimate 4000-16000 deaths.
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Ukraine, Propoganda, Soviets, Nuclear, Disaster, Crisis, Event, History
Pripyat, Kyiv Oblast, Ukraine

Chichen Itza

Growth correlates with decline of Maya southern lowlands. Became powerful during post-classic period wherein signs show a cultural hybridization w/ central Mexico. Paved roads, limestone architecture and bright colors.
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UNESCO, Maya, Mexico, Post-Classic, Yucatan, Cenotes, Place, Artefact, Group, Culture, Arts, Travel, Society, History
Cancún, QROO, México

Chimú

2nd largest empire in Andes spanned 1k km. Success may be attributed to establishment of extensive canals and spondylus trade. Their capital(Chan Chan)similar to Cusco-elites, artisans & store houses. Advanced goldsmiths
A History of the IncaADD TO POLYBOOK
Andes, Inca, Cajamarca, Moche, Peru, Empires, Group, Culture, History, Trivia, Society
Trujillo, Peru

Christ the Redeemer

Taking nine years to complete, this is the second largest Art Deco statue in the world at 700 metres tall with an arm span of 28 metres. Designed as a symbol of peace, it is one of the New Seven Wonders of the world.
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Brazil, Christ, Christian, Catholic, Rio, Statue, Symbol, Place, Artefact, Geography, Culture, Trivia
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Christian Missionaries

Missionaries from Britain saw the new colonies as great opportunities for converts. In addition to spreading Christianity they were also key in enforcing Western beliefs and customs especially through mission schools.
Stuff You Missed in History ClassADD TO POLYBOOK
Christian, Mission, Conversion, Africa, Britain, Colonialism, Place, Event, Group, History, Geography, Politics, Religion
Africa

Chuck Berry

He was a singer-songwriter—often remembered as the pioneers of rock and roll music. Hits included Johnny B. Goode and You Can Never Tell. Inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1986. Died in 2017.
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Guitar, Rock, Singer, Solos, Influential, 1950s, Legend, Person, Arts, Culture, Society
St. Louis, MO, United States

Citizen Kane

An American drama film directed and written by Orson Welles. Was nominated for 9 oscars, winning the Best Original Screenplay. Preserved in the American National Film Registry for its cultural and historical importance.
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Legendary, Iconic, Groundbreaking, Movie, Film, Oscars, Other, Arts, Culture
New York, NY, United States

Coco Chanel

Gabrielle “Coco” Chanel was a famous fashion designer and the founder of the fashion empire Chanel. She opened her first shop in Paris in 1910 and quickly became one of the most sought after fashion personalities.
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Fashion, Designer, Chanel, French, Person, Arts, Culture
Paris, France

Cognitive Revolution

Early humans developed language skills that became the foundation of the Cognitive Revolution, allowing them to transmit knowledge with more precision and using less energy.
Great Leap Years | S1 E1ADD TO POLYBOOK
Brain, Evolve, Milestone, Language, Communication, Event, Theory, Breakthrough, History, Science, Technology
Africa

Cold War

Period of geopolitical tension between the Soviet Union and the United States and their respective allies, the Eastern Bloc and the Western Bloc, after World War II.
Revisionist HistoryADD TO POLYBOOK
Cold, War, Russia, USA, Berlin, China, Global, Event, History, Politics
Global

Colossus Computer

Colossus was the first commercially produced set of electronic computers. Was produced by British engineers to decipher encrypted German transmissions in the World War II. Designed by Tommy Flowers at Bletchley Park.
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Computer, War, Science, England, Breakthrough, Advancement, Invention, Artefact, Breakthrough, History, Technology, Science
Milton Keynes, England

Colossus of Rhodes

Statue of the Greek god Helios built in Rhodes, Greece in 280 BC. It was designed by Greek sculptor Chares of Lindos. One of the seven wonders of the ancient world. Was destroyed in the earthquake of 226 BC.
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God, Sun, Greece, Sculpting, Monument, Statue, Artefact, History
Rhodes, Greece

Compromise of 1877

Followed a contentious election-lead to end of reconstruction period & Union military presence in the south. Muted 14th&15th amend. rights through literary test, i.a. & allowed for voter intimidation tactics in south.
Black History YearADD TO POLYBOOK
History-matters, Equality, Voter-fraud, Voter-rights, Racial-justice, Elections, Event, History, Politics, Society
United States

Confederate States of America

Unrecognized breakaway state in existence from February 8, 1861 to May 9, 1865, that fought against the United States of America during the American Civil War. Tried to uphold slavery but failed losing to USA.
Uncivil PodcastADD TO POLYBOOK
American, Civil, War, North, South, Slavery, Lincoln, Place, History, Politics
USA

Conkers (game)

Conkers is a game played with horse chestnuts threaded on a string. Players take turns to attempt to smash their opponents conker by swinging or striking their nut at it. The origin and earliest game is unknown.
The Curiosity of a Child | S01 E23ADD TO POLYBOOK
Conkers, Horse, Chestnuts, Games, Kids, Children, Event, Activity, Trivia, Sport
Isle of Wight, United Kingdom

Costa Rica Packet

Captain Le Lacheur set the speed record of 131 days for sailing from London to San Francisco in his ship the Costa Rica Packet. The ship was described as the best to have ever entered the port of San Francisco.
The Curiosity of a Child | S01 E25ADD TO POLYBOOK
America, London, Maritime, Guernsey, Records, Speed, Artefact, Breakthrough, History, Technology, Travel, Trivia
San Francisco, CA, USA

Costa Rican Coffee Trade

In the 1840s William Le Lacheur started the coffee trade between Costa Rica and London lifting the country from poverty. He is still fondly remembered today.
The Curiosity of a Child | S01 E25ADD TO POLYBOOK
Coffee, London, Trade, Guernsey, Event, Breakthrough, Activity, Culture, Society, History
Punta Arenas, Costa Rica

Cuban Missile Crisis

Over one-month confrontation between the US and the USSR initiated by Soviet ballistic missile deployment in Cuba in 1962. It is often considered the closest the world came to escalating into a nuclear war.
Revisionist HistoryADD TO POLYBOOK
Cuba, Communism, Russia, USSR, USA, Nuclear, Crisis, Event, History, Politics
Cuba

Cyclone B

Zyklon B (German) trade name of a cyanide-based pesticide invented in Germany. Notorious for its use by Nazi Germany during the Holocaust to murder approximately 1.1 million people in gas chambers installed at Auschwitz.
Unexplained | S05 Ep01ADD TO POLYBOOK
Chemical, Pesticide, WWII, Holocaust, Gas, Genocide, Invention, History, Science
Germany

Dark Energy

Dark Energy roughly covers 68% of the universe, but only little is known about it. It is described as a property of space, and Albert Einstein was the first to realize that empty space is not nothing.
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Space, Science, Astronomy, Astrophysics, Unknown, Fact, Science
Universe

Davelis Cave

Or Penteli cave- Roman quarry and place of lore. Tunnel to hell? UFOs? Sacred site to nature god, Pan? A refuge for hermits it later became a church in 11th cen. Location also famous for outlaw Davelis who hid here.
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Ancient-Greece, Ghostbusters, Paranormal, Mythology, Mystery, Place, Artefact, Myth, Culture, History, Travel, Religion
Penteli, Grécia

David Byrne

He is an American-British singer-songwriter, predominantly renowned as the founder and lead singer of the band—Talking Heads. Part of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Popularised American New Wave. Founder of Luaka Bop.
PitchforkADD TO POLYBOOK
Talking, Heads, Rock, Singer, Songwriter, Newwave, Electronic, Person, Arts, Culture, Society
Dumbarton, Scotland

Dawes Rolls

Commission which defined native citizens in order to execute the General Allotment Act of 1887(land rights). Many natives resisted this reign. Lead to controversy over bloodlines and belonging particularly with Freemans.
Into AmericaADD TO POLYBOOK
Citizenship, Native-American, Land-rights, Allotment-Act-1887, Colonization, Event, History, Politics, Society
Washington, D.C., Distrito de Columbia, EUA

Death of Benito Mussolini

The death of Mussolini, the deposed Italian fascist dictator, occurred on 28 April 1945, in the final days of World War II in Europe, when he was summarily executed by a firing squad. His body was publicly hanged.
Versus History #77ADD TO POLYBOOK
Death, Public, Execution, World, War, Italy, Event, History
Giulino di Mezzegra, Azzano, Province of Como, Italy

Desiderius Erasmus

The Dutch writer, scholar and humanist is known as the first editor of the New Testament. He was an advocate of education and the human capacity for self-improvement who lived in various countries across Western Europe.
BBC Historic FiguresADD TO POLYBOOK
Erasmus, Humanism, Writer, Education, Person, Philosophy, History
Rotterdam, Netherlands

Dick Fosbury

Olympic high jumper who originated the back-first technique of jumping, called the ‘Fosbury Flop’. This style helped him set a new record and win the gold medal. It is now the standard high jumping form used today.
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Olympics, High-jump, Innovation, Record, Athlete, Person, Sport
Portland, OR, United States

Disney

Walt Disney Company began as an independent animation studio by brothers Walt and Roy. It started with shorts before its first feature film. Eventually it expanded to a company including books, merchandise and parks.
You Must Remember ThisADD TO POLYBOOK
Disney, Company, Films, Movies, Animation, Studio, Disneyland, Place, Other, History, Arts
United States

Disneyland

A theme park created by Walt Disney which had welcomed over 700 million visitors since it first opened. Created with different “lands” it draws on Disney film creations like Mickey Mouse for its rides and amusements.
You Must Remember ThisADD TO POLYBOOK
Theme, Park, Rides, Rollercoaster, Disney, Disneyland, Fun, Place, Other, Geography, Trivia, Other
Disneyland Park, Disneyland Drive, Anaheim, CA, USA

Don Quixote

By Miguel Cervantes - 1st modern novel, its style has inspired many great works. 1st part in 1605, 2nd in 1615. Through the years interpretations of the plot have varied (ethics, comical, social critique).
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Book, Classic-literature, Cervantes, LaMancha, Chivalry, Article, Other, Culture, Philosophy, Other
Castela-Mancha

Donald Trump

Reality TV personality & businessman who served as 45th US president. His single term saw violent protests both for and against policies many deem populist, isolationist, racist. “Fake news” denizen. Impeached twice.
Working Over Time E22ADD TO POLYBOOK
US, Presidency, Government, Congress, Democracy, Impeachment, Person, Event, History, Politics, Society
Washington D.C., DC, USA

Dropping Well

Named because of the drops of water that run down it into the pool below, the Dropping Well has been tourist attraction since 1630 because of its curious look. The mineral deposits in the water petrify objects over time.
Stuff You Missed in History ClassADD TO POLYBOOK
England, Rock, Formation, Petrify, Natural, Place, Geography, Trivia
Knaresborough

Dub reggae

New music exploded in the UK music scene of the 70s & 80s. Revolutionized using mixing desks as instruments. Minimized vocals, increased bass, echo & slowed tempo. Influenced UK music; D&B, punk & more.
Museum of LondonADD TO POLYBOOK
Reggae, Music-history, Afro-influences, Jamaica>UK, LeeScratchPerry, Event, Breakthrough, History, Culture, Arts, Society
Londres, Inglaterra

Edgar Allan Poe

In the 19th century, Poe was one of the most influential American poets of his time. He is best known for his literary work in the horror genre and is famous for writing stories with psychological and enigmatic depth.
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Literature, Poetry, Art, Fiction, Person, Culture
Boston, MA, United States

Egyptian Civilization

Predynastic for 1st 2k years. King Menes unified and created idea that king=god, 1st known hieroglyphs come from this time. Golden age and pyramids start w/ 3rd dynasty (2600bc) Conquered by Alexander the Great in 332bc.
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ancient-civilizations, Cleopatra, Empire, Agrarian-society, Pyramids, Egypt, Pharoes, Group, Culture, Travel, Trivia, History, Society
Egito

Eikoh Hosoe

Experimental photographer & filmmaker, often blk & wht. With the emergence of a new world post WWII he changed his name and sought to capture new understandings of death, obsession, eroticism, et aliae. Tokyo avant-garde
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Photography, Avant-garde, Frieze, Artist, Japan, Tokyo, Kamaitachi, VIVO-group, Person, Arts, Culture
Yonezawa, Japan

Eleanor of Aquitaine

The only woman to be Queen of England and France. She is the most famous queen of the Middle Ages. Out of her ten children, her most famous is Richard the Lion Heart. Known for joining the unsuccessful second crusade.
You're Dead to MeADD TO POLYBOOK
France, Royalty, England, Middle, Ages, Queen, Person, History, Politics, Religion
France

Elephant Island

An island in Antarctica. Named after the elephant seals that live on its ice-covered shores. It is within the claims of Argentina, Chile and the UK. Ernest Shackleton's crew took refuge here when their ship sank in 1906.
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Antarctica, Island, Penguins, Seals, Explorer, Place, Geography
Elephant Island

Elizabeth Báthory

Also known as the Countess of Blood and the most profilic female murderer in history, she tortured and killed hundreds of young girls. She allegedly bathed in the blood of her victims and was later confined until death.
Lore Ep34ADD TO POLYBOOK
Murders, Criminals, Myth, Lore, Person, History, Trivia
Cachtice, Slovakia
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